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LIFE Organization's Alignment with

NEP Learning Guidelines


Table of Contents (click to navigate)

Foundational Literacy & Numeracy (FLN)

Why is it required?

Basis of all future learning for a child.

Not achieving basic foundational skills of being able to read with comprehension, writing and doing basic mathematics operations, leaves the child unprepared for the complexities of the curriculum beyond grade 3. Recognizing the importance of early learning, the National Education Policy 2020 states that “Our highest priority must be to achieve universal foundational literacy and numeracy in primary schools by 2026-27. The rest of this Policy will be largely irrelevant for such a large portion of our students if this most basic learning (i.e., reading, writing, and arithmetic at the foundational level) is not first achieved.” To this end, a National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy is being set up by the Ministry of Education (MoE) on priority. The Mission will focus on following areas– providing access and retaining children in foundational years of schooling, teacher capacity building, development of high quality and diversified Student and Teacher Resources/Learning Materials, and tracking the progress of each child in achieving learning outcomes of children.

The vision of the Mission is to create an enabling environment to ensure universal acquisition of foundational literacy and numeracy, so that every child achieves the desired learning competencies in reading, writing and numeracy at the end of Grade III. The mission will cover the learning needs of children in the age group of 3 to 9 years. Accordingly, learning gaps will be identified along with their probable reasons, and various strategies keeping in view local circumstance and diversity of country will be initiated. Moreover, with the aim to establish strong linkage and smooth transition between pre-school stage and Grade I, ECCE Curricular framework developed by NCERT will be followed by both Anganwadis and Pre-primary schools to ensure smooth transition to grade I. Hence, learning will be Holistic, Integrated, Inclusive, Enjoyable, and Engaging.

FLN Implementation

5 Tier Implementation

Will be implementated by MoE at National- State- District- Block- School level in all States and UTs

Mission Mode

To lay emphasis and prioritise, the programme will be implemented in the mission mode

Mainstream Structures

The Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Education will be the implementing agency at the national level and will be headed by a Mission Director

Roadmaps & Plan of Action

The programme will specifically focus on the targets to be achieved by the mission and States/UTs by preparing long term roadmaps and plan of action

This comprehensive guideline for Implementation of Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, covers key technical aspects of foundational literacy and numeracy as well as the 16 NIPUN BHARAT: National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy administrative aspects for effectively setting up an implementation mechanism at the National, State, District, Block and School level. It has been developed through a series of intensive consultations with implementing partners and experts in the field. Adequate care has also been taken to make it flexible and collaborative. Thus, the National Mission on FLN will be implemented with the use and strengthening of the existing mainstream structures and will take a holistic approach through the active involvement of all stakeholders.

What are FLN Skills?

Foundational Language & Literacy

Oral language development in home language; appropriate exposure to the school language including good listening comprehension skills, development of print and phonological awareness and development of emergent reading and writing skills in the pre-school years are crucial for language and literacy development in early primary school years.

Foundational Numeracy & Mathematical Skills

Foundational Numeracy means the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts in daily life problem solving. The development of pre-number and number concepts, knowledge and skills ofcomparing, seriation, classification and recognizing patterns during pre-school serves as a foundation for mathematics learning in early primary classes.

Key components in Foundational Language and Literacy

Development of early language and literacy in the formative years requires developing a wide range of skills, knowledge, and attitudes. This also requires developing literacy to build comprehension, writing for self-expression, vocabulary enrichment, experiences of reading with pleasure, engaging in interesting conversation. Rich early language and literacy experiences also gives opportunity for getting familiar with the aspects of language such as fluency, word recognition, letter knowledge and phonological awareness.

The pre-existing knowledge of language helps in building literacy skills in languages. Children who have a strong foundation in their home language can learn English/second language more easily.

The key components in Foundational Language and Literacy are:

Oral Language Development

Includes improved listening comprehension, oral vocabulary, and extended conversation skills. The experiences in oral language are important for developing skills of reading and writing.
Our Sample Plan

Reading Comprehension

Involves constructing meaning from a text and thinking critically about it. This domain covers the competencies of understanding texts and retrieving information from them, as well as interpreting texts.
Our Sample Plan

Concept About Print

Before children start their formal instruction in literacy their understanding about print is essential, as print conveys meaning and has its own purposes and features. Children need exposure to different types of print rich environment to develop the skill of comprehension
Our Sample Plan


Involves the ability to express themselves in writing in initial stages with their familiarity and understanding encoded sounds to write words. This domain includes the competencies of writing aksharas and words as well as writing for expression.
Our Sample Plan


Developing knowledge of a wide range of words and word meanings. If vocabulary is developed in contexts, children learn to use words in appropriate contexts. This domain includes the competencies of oral vocabulary, reading/writing vocabulary, and morphological analysis of words
Our Sample Plan

Phonological Awareness

Involves building an understanding of the sound structure of a language. This domain includes the competencies of word awareness, rhyme awareness, and awareness of sounds within words which should emerge from their meaningful engagement with language.
Our Sample Plan


Involves deciphering written words based on understanding the relationship between symbols and their sounds. This domain includes competencies of print awareness, akshara knowledge and decoding, and word recognition.
Our Sample Plan

Reading Fluency

Refers to the ability to read a text with accuracy, speed (automaticity), expression (prosody), and comprehension that allows children to make meaning from the text. It leads to a quantitative model of reading efficiency that has a simple and transparent monitoring indicator
Our Sample Plan

Culture of Reading

Involves the motivation to engage with a wide variety of books and other reading materials. Children should be able to appreciate good literature and be able to respond to it in informed ways. The cultural of reading also promotes democratic values and personal social relationship for responsible citizenry.
Our Sample Plan

Key components in Foundational Numeracy & Mathematical Skills

The major aspects and components of early mathematics are:


Pre-Number Concepts

Count and understand the numeration system


Numbers and operations

Learn conventions needed for mastery of Mathematical techniques such as the use of a base ten system to represent numbers



Understand and use standard algorithms to perform operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on numbers up to three digits


Shapes and Spatial Understanding

Perform simple computations in her/his own way up to three-digit numbers and apply these to their day to life activities in different contexts



Learn vocabulary of relational words to extend his/her understanding of space and spatial objects


Data Handling

Develop capacity to interpret data in order to make sense of it and take informed decisions while answering specific questions

Key Components in LIFE Skills - Beyond Nipun Bharat

The major aspects and components of LIFE Skills are:


Understanding Emotions

Reading and Understanding emotions of people around you and dealing with situations accordingly


Communication Skills

Critical skills important for kids to grow up the right way and be able to tell the right thing in the right way to people around them



Understanding what loyalty means in day to day life and its importance in creating long lasting relationships with people around



Understanding needs of others and helping them when you can. This skill, when instilled at an early age helps children assimilate very quickly in society and brings about good behavior


Decision Making

Understanding decision making process helps children take some simple decisions on their own and makes them more independent in day to day life. This skill  helps children become a matured and responsible adult as they grow

“It takes a village to raise a child”

A successful mission to improve foundational learning of all children in our country cannot be envisaged without an active role played by Teachers, Parents, Community and Local Bodies. The checklists below give suggestive direction for each pivotal stakeholder to play their role in the success of the mission.

Encourage children to talk
Children learn more when they are encouraged to, talk and discuss in the classroom. In majority classrooms, teachers talk most of the time while children either give choral responses or are passive spectators.
Creating an engaging learning environment
Activities, like choral repetition, copying from blackboard, are repeatedly done in a mechanical way and do not result in learning. Children soon get disinterested or distracted and their ‘time-on-task’ is low. Most children are not actively engaged for most of the teaching time. Children get distracted if there is no sense of enjoyment or fun in the learning process.
Teaching through experiential and real-world based pedagogy
Children do not take interest in learning if teaching in the classroom is textbook centred and the emphasis is on completing the curriculum and if the teaching-learning is disconnected from the children’s context and real-world experiences. Children join school with informal mathematical thinking as they solve simple problems in real life. Therefore, mathematics learning in the classroom must be connected with the child’s outside school experiences.
Support struggling learners
Teachers must be able to provide additional support to children who are lagging, and the gap continues to widen.
Continuous assessment and identifying learning gaps frequently
Learning assessment, including examinations, to be largely focused on testing for skills or concept development rather than content. Teaching must integrate continuous assessment.
Creating a print-rich environment in classrooms
There are very few children’s reading materials or TLM in most classrooms. Often, there are alphabet and number charts displayed in the classroom or painted on the classroom walls. Thus, children do not get any chance to engage with books or other learning materials. Teachers need to provide print-rich and toy- rich environment in the classroom.

Teaching-Learning process: Role of a Teacher

Every Teacher who deals with Foundational Learners must understand that Children learn in variety of ways and have different learning levels in each class, i.e.,

LIM - LIFE Instructional Matrix Relevance in Nipun Bharat Mission

Developing a strong foundation of language, literacy, and mathematical skills in the early years (Age group 3 to 9) is critical to all future learning

The ability to read and write, and to perform basic operations with numbers, is a necessary foundation and indispensable prerequisite for all future schooling and lifelong learning. Early literacy and numeracy skills are not only foundational for learning but are correlated with greater quality of life and personal well-being and are critical for educational outcomes in later years. A robust foundation in literacy and numeracy helps children to learn, experiment, reason and create, to be active and later become informed citizens, and contribute socially, culturally, and economically. Literacy is no longer perceived as a simple cognitive skill but as a complex and active process with cognitive, social, linguistic, and psychological aspects (Teale & Sulz by, 1986). Children’s concepts about literacy are formed from their earliest experiences and interactions with readers and writers. The process also involves their own attempts to read, write, and develop their own meaning and purpose of literacy skills. The idea is to focus on building the skills in early childhood education itself.

The‘India Early Childhood Education Impact Study, (2017)’ conducted by Centre for Early Childhood Education and Development (CECED) at Ambedkar University, UNICEF and ASER

This report mentioned that ‘High quality Early Childhood Education programmes help the children to develop a conceptual and language foundation for later learning of reading, writing and mathematics’. Early childhood (birth to 9 years) is a critical period of development and early literacy and early numeracy are two important skill areas that develop along with social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development of the child during this period. Literacy and numeracy development is intricately linked with participation of children in everyday communications, actions, thoughts and self expression in speech and initial forms of writing. Communication and bonding with family, and friends play an important role in developing early literacy skills. Resources and materials such as children’s literature, stationery, art, and craft materials, counting objects enhances children’s interest in reading, writing and numeracy. Relevant literacy experiences give them opportunities for self-expression in oral and written forms, reading with comprehension, pleasure, and critical perspective. It also develops good communication skills and personal social qualities. Their awareness of materials, shape, space, pattern, and difference, classifying, matching, comparing, and ordering are important for the development of numeracy. The knowledge, skills, attitudes, and dispositions developed in these early years impact significantly upon their later learning experiences. It is evident that the skills related to literacy and numeracy develops in integration with each other as per the child’s experiences in daily life. In the initial years of learning, the skills of literacy and numeracy are learnt without making conscious distinction between languages and numbers e.g., the numeracy skills can be naturally learnt from their experiences of reading and writing, stories, poems, riddles etc.

NEP 2020

The NEP 2020 firmly recognises the importance of quality Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) and clearly stressed upon that.

“Over 85% of a child’s cumulative brain development occurs prior to the age of 6, indicating the critical importance of appropriate care and stimulation of the brain in the early years in order to ensure healthy brain development and growth”
– NEP 2020, Para1.1

Therefore, it is imperative to have a quality ECCE programme in place to attain optimal outcomes in the domains of physical and motor development, cognitive development, socio-emotional-ethical development, cultural/artistic development, and the development of communication and early language, literacy, and numeracy.

The National Policy on Education (2020) has focused on pre-school education and made it integral part of the education system. The needs and demands of child will be at the centre while formulation of curriculum for foundational literacy at early grades. The physical, motor, psychological, social, emotional, intellectual development of children of varied ages should be considered while developing content for the children of early grades for the attainment of foundational literacy.

LIFE and Nipun Bharat Alignment - Block Comparison

Additional program blocks offered by LIFE Org

* Socio-Emotional Skills
* EVS / Sciences – Ecosystems, Physics, Chemistry, Biology

Rubrics & Parameters for Pre-Primary

Defining Education in the Early Years

The National ECCE Curriculum Framework, 2013 conforms to the vision of holistic and integrated development of the child, with focus on care and early learning at each sub-stage of the developmental continuum, to support children’s all round and holistic development. It also mentions that the pre-school curriculum must address the following interrelated domains of holistic development through an integrated and play-based approach (click on a box below to see a sample of our lesson plans for that domain):

Sensory and Perceptual Development

Development of the five senses through visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic experiences.
Our Sample Plan

Physical, Health and Motor Development

Gross motor skills, fine motor skills, coordination of fine muscles with dexterity; eye-hand coordination; sense of balance, physical coordination, and awareness of space and direction; nutrition, health status and practices.
Our Sample Plan

Language Development

Language classroom experiences of teachers have shown that the processes of reading, writing, listening, viewing, and thinking develop simultaneously as learners become literate.
Our Sample Plan

Cognitive Development

Development of various concepts, including pre-number and number concepts and operations, (knowledge and skills related to comparing, classification, serration, conservation of space and quantity, one-to-one correspondence, counting)
Our Sample Plan

Creative & Aesthetic Appreciation

Exploring different art forms, developing dispositions, expression, and appreciation for artistic, dance / drama and musical activities.
Our Sample Plan

Personal, Social & Emotional Development

Development of self-concept; self control; life skills / self-help skills; habit formation; initiative and curiosity; engagement and persistence; cooperation; compassion; social relationships; group interaction; pro-social behaviour; expressing feelings, accepting others’ feelings.
Our Sample Plan

The ‘Pre-School Curriculum’ NCERT (2019) emphasises on three developmental goals that comprises of all the five domains rather than talking about each domain in isolation. One of the objectives of preschool is to help children become involved learners, think critically, be creative, collaborate, communicate, and connect with their immediate environment which are well aligned with the early literacy and numeracy skills. The overall development of the personality of a child through play, manipulation of concrete material for discovery, experimentation, and exploration is the purpose of preschool education. It emphasises on a print rich environment that allows young children to practice foundational literacy skills in their daily life, combined with age and developmentally appropriate pedagogical practices of key concepts and literacy skills. This lays the foundation of literacy learning in the preschool. It also suggests about how to plan the pedagogical practices in such a way that goes along with the developmental stages of young children in the age group of three to six years.

Samples of our Lesson Plans
Pre-Primary & Primary

(a) Sensory time (Pre-Primary)

Materials Required
For this session teacher to find 1 or 2 real live snails or big slugs to show the children. For detailed understanding read the activity, rhyme and audio link given

Speech, Pronunciation, Alphabet, Color, Shapes and Patterns, Music, Object around us, Listening Comprehension, Entertainment, Fine Motor Skills, Vocabulary

1. The teacher must put across to the students in simple understanding words that the combination of heat, sunlight, rains and snow. This is how we get different climatic conditions. Temperatures in different regions give different seasons at the same stretch of time. Our senses also show touch and the relationship of different temperatures in accordance with things, liquids, and livings creatures.
2. Post experience through the use of senses observations can be used to describe experiences and used as evidence to write inferences and description. Written work can thus be analysed for language development and sentence formation.

Teacher Instructions

1. So for this session teacher to find 1 or 2 real live snails or big slugs to show the children.
2. Encourage them to touch them very softly on their shells. if they feel comfortable put them on their hands and let them feel their slimy body. Keep some leaves and water to spray on them.
3. This activity enhances the understanding of nature and natural senses.
4. Do not force a child to touch. Wash their hands after the activity.


Let us make a little visit
To the curly house of snail
‘round we go until we find him
Hidden in his coat of mail.
Then we turn and go back homewards,
Still a-winding all the way.
‘Till we come out from the tunnel
To the sunny light of day

1. Make the children repeat every line after you.
2. Teach the rhyme first then do the below instructions.
3. This poem is about the spiral shell of the snail. The teacher can make a spiral walkway on the floor of the classroom and while singing the rhyme the children can follow the teacher to the center of the spiral in paragraph 1 and go backward and unspiral themselves in the second paragraph.
4. Do this for several rounds till children learn the tune and are comfortable with the actions.
5. Let the children enjoy singing the song.

(b) Sense Organs (Primary)

Materials Required
1. Blackboard, Chalk
2. Five Sense organs
3. CW Life Activity Worksheet [Sense organs]

Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication Skills, Fine Motor Skills, Team Work, Motor Memory, Science

The Five Senses
Senses are important because they allow us to perceive the world in which we live. Our five senses are our sense of sight (also known as vision), smell (olfaction), hearing audition), taste (gustation), and touch (somatosensation). A sense is our ability to detect motivations which are then interpreted and responded to accordingly. Humans are not the only creatures with sensory capacity – animals have senses too. The degrees of sensory capability vary among species. Some animals have a weaker sense of smell than others. Some have a sharper sense of sight, etc. Sensory organs are organs of the body that access those sensory capabilities and help us become conscious and respond to our surroundings. There are two types of receptors depending on the sensory organ: general receptors and special receptors. General receptors are present in the skin and muscles. Special receptors are in the form of photoreceptors (in the eyes), chemoreceptors (in the mouth and nose), and mechanoreceptors (in the ears).

Teacher Instructions

Sight also referred to as the vision, is our ability to see. The eyes are the visual sensory organs of the human body. Other animals, birds, and fish also see through their eyes. Human eyes vary in color depending on the amount of melanin in the body. Eye colors can be brown, blue, gray, green, and even combinations. Our eyes are sensitive to images of light. Seeing occurs when eyes detect and focus on these images. The scientific study of sight is called optics. Blindness is the inability to see. Blindness can be temporary or permanent.

Hearing, also referred to as auditory perception or audition, is our ability to perceive sounds. We have our auditory system by which we detect vibrations and hear sounds. Our ears are auditory organs. Vibrations are transmitted through a medium such as air. Humans may experience hearing loss when the ability to hear is lost partially or completely. Deafness is the inability to hear.

The sense of smell is also referred to as olfaction. We have our olfactory system by which we smell and perceive different odors and scents. The nose is an olfactory organ. The nose can also be an organ to aid in our sense of taste. Humans breathe through two holes called nostrils. Animals generally have a sharper sense of smell than humans. Anosmia is the inability to smell.

We have one tongue by which we perceive various tastes and flavors like sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The small bumps on the tongue are the papillae. In between the papillae are the taste buds. The different parts of the tongue detect distinct flavors: front for salty and sweet, back for bitter, and sides for sour. The fifth basic taste is called umami. Ageusia is the inability to taste.

Our skin is the largest organ as it covers our whole body. The receptors on our skin allow us to perceive texture, pain, temperature, pressure, and pain. Touch is also referred to as tactician, somatosensation The sense of touch is activated by neural receptors found in the skin, and other surfaces like the tongue and hair follicles. Skin receptors generate an impulse that is carried to the spinal cord then to the brain. Pressure receptors in the skin are sensitive to changes in pressure. Itch-specific neurons in the skin give us the touch sense of itching. Tactile anaesthesia is the inability to feel anything physically.

The teacher must tell them to discuss each sense organ and then let them complete the CW
Life Activity Worksheet [Sense organs].

(c) Game Time (Pre-Primary)

Materials Required

4-5 balls – few light and few heavy

Game Explained- Games related to the monsoon

Speech, Objects around us, Listening Comprehension, Vocabulary, Animals and Plants, Entertainment, Teamwork, Communication Skills, Behaviour and Etiquette


1. The teacher must understand the importance of helping in prompting different vocabulary or making short sentences or grammar correction. Also, encourage them to ask and answer questions. The teacher must highlight seeking help for any activity is a positive behaviour that must be encouraged.

2. On the concept of math the core concept of measurable attributes of objects, such as length, numbers, or use of the same. Comparison of two or more objects with common measurable attributes for eg., to see which object stands too long and which too short, objects collide with each other and bounce opposite ways. etc. All these must be taught as a subconscious innate concept.

Teacher Instructions

1. In case of an online class please make sure the parents are given the list of required materials in advance so that this activity can be done by children individually. Children can then copy the teacher showing the activity on her screen.
2. Make all the children sit in a group.
3. Explain the children about the game.
4. The name of the game is THE Froggy game with ball catch
5. The teacher will divide her class into two groups.
6. She will instruct each group at a time to throw the ball towards the other by jumping like a frog and the other team to jump like frog and catch it.
7. For eg. Jump like a frog, and throw the whole team has to jump like a frog.
8. Croak like a frog…….. so on.
9. She has to give points to each group as per their performance.
10. Their efforts for each weight will be different. Balls might collide with each other and bounce opposite ways. Teachers must try to make leading questions after or during the game to check their observations.
11. After each observation, a child could make a point or write the apt response on the board or with a marker on chart paper. Initiate a discussion around it.
12. After the game, she may declare the winning team

(d) 5 Vowel Sorting (Pre-Primary)

Materials Required

Game explained. Vowel Sorting game

Speech, Alphabet, Vocabulary, Objects around us, Colours, shapes, and patterns, Listening Comprehension, Fine Motor Skills, Motor Memory

Teacher Instructions

* ‘Vowels Sorting game’
* Vowels flashcards and words cutouts

Pre- Prep work– The teacher has to keep the cutouts of flashcards ready for the activity 1 day prior

1. Explain the activity to the children. Tell them that today they are going to do sorting of long & short vowels.
2. The kids are always excited to do something new.
3. Have the children seated on the tables?
4. Hand 1 cut out of letters to each child.
5. Let the children recognize and place the flashcard properly.
6. Make it an exciting and interesting game.

(e) 10 red pens - short vowel 'e' (Pre-Primary)

(f) Dance Time (Pre-Primary)

Materials Required

Song audio

Music, Dance, Theatre, Seasons & Festivals, Entertainment, Objects around us, Listening Comprehension

Note: Click on play to listen to Audio

Teacher Instructions

  • Teacher: “Children, Now how about some music and dance? Now we are going to sing and dance to the song. Do the actions as given in the song. (tune given)

The Count Song

Skip one & two
(join hands in a circle & take two sliding steps)
Jump 3 & 4
(two jumps on the spot and drop hands)
Turn around swiftly
(turn a complete circle on the spot)
And sit upon the floor
(sit with legs crossed
Clap one & two
(clap twice)
Nod 3 & 4
(nod twice)
Jump again quickly
(jump up)
And be ready for more!!!!
(join hands to be ready and start again)

This can be repeated twice / thrice depending on the time.

(g) Table Manners (Pre-Primary)


Speech, Theatre, Family and Friends, Entertainment, Vocabulary, Behaviour and Etiquette, Communication Skills, Teamwork, Value system

Teacher Instructions

– Teacher should explain to the children that this week they have been talking about good manners and table manners.

– Teacher has to put the manners printout in class, so that they read and follow it everyday.

Rules to be followed at the table.

1. Wait until everyone has been served before you eat.
2. Use your knife to cut and your fork to put the food in your mouth.
3. Chew food with your mouth closed.
4. Ask for things to be passed to you, don’t lean over the table.
5. If you need to blow your nose, excuse yourself and go out of the room first.
6. Don’t grab everything you want first – help others to get their food and be prepared to share.
7. Don’t talk with your mouth full. It is not a good look!

These are the few rules to be followed at the table.

Activity - Restaurant Party (Pre-Primary)


Speech, Theatre, Family & Friends, Objects around us, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Fine Motor Skills, Behaviour & etiquette, Communication Skills, Value System

Teacher Instructions

– For Restaurant Party, teachers had to make necessary arrangements like a nameplate for the restaurant. Whole set up of the restaurant including table, chairs, table utensils, napkin, menu card, waiter, Captain, security guard, and food items.

– Teachers can dress up as waiters, captains, security guards, and owners of the restaurant. Kids will be in casual wear. 1 teacher has to explain them properly from entering the restaurant, till the exit from the restaurant. Make the children act as the guest of the restaurant. They will enjoy it a lot.


* Demo should be given to the children by the teachers before the beginning of the Party.

* Appreciate it if they imitate you… as imitation is the best way kids learn.

* Excitement and making any learning special and new is an important aspect of the introduction. It makes the children grasp more.

* Make sure that every child participates.

* Teach them to wait for their turn.

Our Sample Lesson Plans:
Foundational Language & Literacy

(1) Oral Language Development - Otto's Rainy Day - Primary

Materials Required

Video Link below

Speech, Pronunciation, Alphabet, Color, Shapes and Patterns, Music, Objects around us, Listening Comprehension, Entertainment, Fine Motor Skills, Vocabulary

Teacher Instructions

1. In case of an online class please make sure the parents are given the list of required materials in advance so that this activity can be done by children individually. Children can then copy the teacher showing the activity on her screen. 

2. “the rains are so beautiful. I love the rains… I love splashing in the puddles and make paper boats … do you like making paper boats children?” YESSSSS!!!

3. And what I love most are the animals we see during the monsoon season. Remember we learnt about the frog and the snail?”

4. And we also know what do we wear to protect ourselves from the rain. Right?

5. Encourage their answers and appreciate them.

6. “So now we are going to meet Otto a little boy who loves the rains and see what he wants to do at home on a rainy day!!”

7. Talk to the children about how they spend a rainy day.

(2.1) Reading Comprehension - Reading an e-Book - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

Sam the Ant – Video link below

Speech, Animals, Listening Comprehension, Personal Identity, Objects around us, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Behaviour, and etiquette

Teacher Instructions

Refer to the story given. Teacher to ask children to listen and repeat as instructed in the story. Then she has to ask to recognize the long and short sounds and the middle sound and which family word according to the given sentence.

(2.2) Reading Comprehension - Ancient History - Primary


The earliest human beings were hunter-gatherers. They lived in nomadic groups and moved from place to place. They had to catch and find everything they ate. They were also known as early stone age people who used simple tools like sharpened stones. They made simple hand-axes out of stones. They also made hammers from bones or antlers and they sharpened sticks to use as hunting spears.

Stone Age people cut up their food with sharpened stones and cooked it on fire. Fire enabled hunter-gatherers to stay warm, to cook their food and to scare wild animals. 

From their earliest days, the hunter-gatherer diet included various grasses, tubers, fruits, seeds, and nuts. Lacking the means to kill larger animals, they procured meat from smaller games or through scavenging. Usually, the men would do the hunting and the women would gather fruits, nuts and seeds and dig up roots. Hunter-gatherers had a deep knowledge of plant life. 

Later they used arrows and spears tipped with flint or bone which helped them to hunt large animals. They also went fishing using nets and harpoons.

They used animal skins to make clothes and shelters. They built temporary shelters or lived in caves. After a good day’s hunting people could feast on meat. But the next day they had to start finding food again!

Gradually people began to learn the art of taming and breeding animals. They would domesticate animals like dogs, horses, buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, yaks, reindeer, etc. They could rely on their domestic animals for food such as milk and meat as well as for wool. However, they had to continue to roam from one to place to another with their herds in search of greener pastures!


Imagine you are a hunter-gatherer. Describe your life as a hunter-gatherer in the form of an essay.

You can refer to the notes above for ideas. The essay has to be written in four paragraphs. Use the format given below to write your essay.

Title: My Life as a hunter-gatherer

First paragraph – Introduction:

Introduce your name and yourself.
Are you part of a group? Are you the leader of the group? Are you a man or a woman or a child?
Why is your group called the hunter-gatherers?

Second paragraphMiddle:
Where do you live? Describe the place
What tools do you use?
What do you eat?
How do you find food?
How do you cook food?
How do you make clothes?

Remember to leave some space before the first word at the beginning of a new paragraph.

Describe your house / shelter?

Third paragraph – Middle:

Describe the challenges/dangers that you face as a hunter-gatherer?

Fourth paragraph – Conclusion:

Are you happy or not happy with your life as a hunter-gatherer? Give reasons for the same.

Special note:

Write in full complete sentences.

Use descriptive words (adjectives) to describe your nouns. For example ferocious animals, scary hyenas, sharp stones, etc.

Try to cover all the points mentioned in the format.

Remember to leave some space before the first word at the beginning of a new paragraph.

(3) Writing - Brush Activity - Pre-primary

Materials Required

A small bucket of water, paintbrushes clean the classroom floor, and a mop or cloth for cleaning. Brush letter ‘L’


Speech, Alphabet, Listening Comprehension, Patterns, Music, Spatial Awareness, Motor Memory, Communication Skills

Teacher Instructions

A small bucket of water, LIFE paint brushes clean classroom floor and a mop or cloth for cleaning.

This is a fun activity for the kids to enjoy and learn at the same time. The brushes have been provided for this activity.

So for this activity, the child will be given the brush to hold which he/she will dip in the bucket of water. They will now trace the writing patterns of the letter ‘L’ on the floor and enjoy the activity.

Ask the children to say as they trace.

As this is a new activity for the children will need help from the teachers.

First, hold their hand and make them write the letter.

Repeat the activity 4 to 5 times.

The floor can be mopped as soon as one batch of 5 students is done doing the activity.

Some kid’s music can be played in the background as the activity is on.

(4) Reading & Writing Activity - Primary

Materials Required

– PDF Pluto the dog
– English Notebook
– Pencil, Eraser

Speech, Alphabet, Pronunciation, Vocabulary,  Fine Motor Skills, Entertainment, Listening Comprehension, Fine Motor Skills, Behaviour & Etiquette, Communication skills

Teacher Instructions

The teacher comes inside the class and greets the children.

Do not ask children to open the PDF Pluto the dog at first. Let them listen to you carefully. Children we learnt about so many sounds that animals make. Today we are going to learn about a little pet named Pluto. Let’s see who Pluto is.

Then after reading the  PDF Pluto the dog once, ask them to see the PDF Pluto the dog and then make each child try and read 3 sentences each and keep repeating till each of them get a chance to read. Let them make the sounds of animals and enjoy.

Unscramble the words given and read the chapter Pluto the dog and write in the English Notebook











(5) Vocabulary - Sight Words - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

Butterfly  Sight word game. An Image is given for reference

Speech, Fine Motor Skills, Alphabet, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening comprehension, Communication skills, Colours, Shapes & Patterns

Teacher Instructions

The teacher has to make this game in advance.

Explain to them they have to come and pick 1 ice cream stick, read the sight word loudly and, have to cover that word on the butterfly.

The teacher can do a demo of the game for their better understanding.

The teacher should applaud the kids for every right answer and encourage the kids when needed.

Make it a fun activity.

The teacher’s ideas are welcome.

(6) Phonological Awareness - 2 Phonic Sounds - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

  • Flashcards/real objects
  • Phonic song of /Cc/
  • Link Provided. Watch Video

Video Credits- Kids ABC

Speech, Vocabulary, Alphabet, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Gross motor skills, Fine Motor Skills, Music

Teacher Instructions

1. Welcome the children and greet them as they come.  Seat them such that they can view the board clearly.  

2. “Today we are going to meet someone special. His name is ‘Chester the Mouse’. Are you all excited to meet him?”

3 . “Let’s go and visit Chester the Mouse. As he searches for letters, all around the house. He wants to discover his own ABC and may need some help from you and from me. Close to his heels, there’s a curious cat, but Chester’s too busy to think about that. He gathers up letters to make his own store, but if you look carefully you’ll often see more.”

4. Start with the letter ‘Aa’, with his nose in the air, “Chester’s off on his way He’s found letter A!” Teacher has to put the images on the screen and read it along by finger tracing the words.

5. Point to all the ‘A’ letter objects seen on the screen. For eg. Acorn, Acrobat, Apple, Abacus, Alarm clock, an anchor, alligator, Ape, etc.

6. The teacher can ask the children what else they can see in the picture.

7. They may come up with new words.

8. After ‘Aa’ then shows them the letter ‘Bb’, Read the paragraph given on-screen. Yes, Chester- you’ve got it! A bright, bouncy B. Boat, beads, box, and basket, what else can you see?

9. They may come up with new words. Applaud them.

10. And now cake, candles, and cherries, a large cup of tea. A chocolate chip cookie, that’s Chester’s own ‘Cc’

11. The teacher has to draw a big size ‘C’ on the board. 

12. Keep the flashcards ready with blue tack on them. Keep the objects ready shown on the screen.

13. Make sounds and actions to display the pictures/ objects.Phonic sound to be used.

14. Show them the link provided.

15. NOTE :  Excitement and making any object special and new is an important aspect of the introduction.

16. It makes the children grasp more as they remember the punctuations given along with them.

(7) Phonological Awareness - English Poem - The Sun - Primary

Materials Required

– Poem The Sun is given
– HW Life Activity Worksheet [Rhyming words]


Speech, Vocabulary, Alphabet, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication skills, Fine Motor Skills, Motor memory, Teamwork

Teacher Instructions

Welcome the students to school for a fresh start.

Teacher recites the poem with proper rhyme and rhythm given on Eng. Textbook Pg. No. 72.

The students repeat in the same rhythm after the teacher.

Teacher stresses on the rhyming words and make them underline. Explain the meaning of rhyming words then let them say the words that rhyme in the poem.

Rhyming words are two or more words that have the same or similar ending sound. Some examples of rhyming words are: goat, boat, moat, float, and coat.

When you are figuring out if two words rhyme, use your ears to listen as you say the words. If they sound the same or similar, they rhyme. For example: car and bar rhyme; house and mouse rhyme. If the two words sound different, they do not rhyme. For example: car and man do not rhyme; house and grass do not rhyme.

Say the words in the chart out loud and practice listening to words that rhyme and words that do not rhyme. First, let’s look at words that rhyme:

Hat / Bat
Fun / Sun
Bee / See
Honey / Money

Now, see how this is different from words that don’t rhyme?

Jump / Star
Silly / Sick
Boy / Girl
Love / Truck

Poems sometimes feature rhyming pairs at the end of the lines of poetry. Poems aren’t required to rhyme, but many do. Short poems can be found in many greeting cards, like the birthday cards you get each year or cards you give to friends. Look at some greeting cards and find the rhyming words. Is there a pattern to the rhyme? For example, some poems have lines one and two rhyme, and then lines three and four rhyme. Others rhyme at the end of every other line. Here are examples of each pattern.

“Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.”

“Roses are red
Violets are blue
Sugar is sweet
And I love you.”

Whoops! What happened in that last example? The second and fourth lines rhyme, but the first and third lines don’t. See if you can think of a word to replace either “red” or “sweet” to make those lines rhyme. Remember, the poem still has to make sense!

Where Do We See Rhyming Words?

We see rhyming words in stories, poems, and songs. They can help the story, poem, or song sound more fun and interesting. Rhyming words can also help you memorize a story, poem, or song more easily. In ‘The Alphabet Song’ we sing,

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P…

Rhyming Words Fun

‘Let’s play a game where I say a word and you say a word that rhymes with my word,’ said Jim to Molly.

‘Sounds fun, let’s play!’ says Molly.

Jim: ‘red’
Molly: ‘bed’
Jim: ‘sat’
Molly: ‘rat’
Jim: ‘funny’
Molly: ‘bunny’
Jim: ‘book’
Molly: ‘look’
Jim: ‘house’
Molly: ‘ship’

‘GAME OVER!’ says Jim. ‘House and ship do not rhyme. You could have said mouse. Mouse rhymes with house.’

‘Oh, I see’, said Molly. ‘Ship could have rhymed with chip.’

Then move on to difficult words in the poem must be explained.

Students learn to use the present progressive “ing” at the end for the given verbs.

Teacher must explain the process to complete the HW Life Activity Worksheet [Rhyming words]

(8.1) Decoding - Color the Vowel - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

– Life Worksheet given
– ‘Color all the vowel red & all the consonants green’
– Pencils & Erasers
– Jumbo Crayons

Speech, Alphabet, Writing, Fine Motor Skills, Motor Memory, Vocabulary, Colours, Shapes and Patterns, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension

Teacher Instructions

1. The teacher has to take printouts of the printable sheet as per her class strength.

2. Explain to them the worksheet properly.


(8.2) Decoding - Short Vowel Sounds - Primary

Materials Required

– Explanation given (short vowel)
– Worksheet given


Speech, Alphabet, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Fine Motor Skills, Listening Comprehension

Teacher Instructions

– Greet the children with a smile and warmth.
– Do a small recap on vowels and consonants.
– Tell them that today we are going to learn about short vowels.
– The explanation is given below
– The alphabet is made up of 26 letters, 5 of which are vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and the rest of which are consonants.
– Say a simple, 1 syllable word. Write it down in front of the students. Ask the children to say only the vowel in the word.
– For example, say the word “cat.” Ask them to say the vowel in the word, which is a short a.
– It may take a few tries before they start doing it on their own. If they’re struggling, help them out by sounding out the word.
– It’s important to both write and say the word so that your students start to connect the letter to the sound.
– Short vowels typically appear at the beginning of words or sometimes in the middle.
– Write the words on board that contain short vowels to help them recognize how they sound.
– Some examples are: Short a : map, pal, cat, dad
– Short e : pen, let, get, send
– Short i :  pin, mint, still, fill
– Short o : con, lot, dot, hop
– Short u : pun, nut, bun, hub
– Encourage the children to come forward and try to read the words.
– Applaud them for their efforts.
– Teacher has to display the short vowel chart in the class.

(9.1) Reading Fluency - Long Vowels - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

– Information given
– Worksheet given


Speech, Alphabet, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Fine Motor Skills, Listening Comprehension

Teacher Instructions

  • Greet the children with a smile and warmth.
  • Do a small recap on vowel and consonants and short vowels.
  • Tell them that today we are going to learn about long vowels.
  • The explanation is given below:-
  • To help children remember the difference, tell them that a long vowel states its name. In other words, a long a is pronounced like the letter a, as in lake or tape.
  • Some examples you can use include:-
  • Long a : bale, fake, date, state
  • Long e : me, he, she, theme
  • Long i :  fine, mine, shine
  • Long o : rope, dote, note
  • Long u : mute, cute, rude, dune
  • Encourage the children to come forward and try to read the words.
  • Applaud them for their efforts.
  • Teacher has to display the long vowel chart in the class.

(9.2) Reading Fluency - Helping Verbs - Primary

Materials Required

– Life Activity Worksheet Helping Verbs


Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication skills, Fine Motor Skills, Motor memory, Teamwork

Teacher Instructions

  • The students have learnt helping verbs. They just need a brush-up and explain to them well the difference between linking and helping verbs.

    Helping verbs, also called “auxiliary verbs,” are verbs that don’t have a specific definition by themselves, but instead “help” the main verb of the sentence. A lot of students make mistakes with helping verbs in English, so here’s a complete guide to using this type of verb! Let’s learn to use the most common helping verbs.

    Helping Verb #1 – DO

    Use a form of the word “DO” to ask questions:
    Do you like ice cream?
    Where do they live?
    What time does the bank open?
    Does Bill have a dog?
    Did you go to the party?
    Why did she go home early yesterday?

    Use DO with I, you, we, and they (in the present).
    Use DOES with he, she, and it (in the present).
    Use DID for all forms in the past.

    When asking questions in the past with WHY, WHERE, and HOW + DID, we often shorten the word “did” in spoken English.
    Why‘d she gone home early yesterday?
    Where‘d you buy that T-shirt?
    How‘d he finish his homework so fast?

    Use DON’T,  DOESN’T, and DIDN’T to form negative statements:
    I don’t like ice cream.
    They don’t live in this neighborhood.
    The bank doesn’t open on Saturdays.
    Bill doesn’t have a dog.
    We didn’t go to the party.
    She didn’t have any more work to do, so she went home.

    Avoid this common error: Using NO or NOT as the helping verb.
    I no like ice cream.
    I not like ice cream.
    I don’t like ice cream.
    We no go to the party.
    We not go to the party.
    We didn’t go to the party.

    Helping Verb #2 – BE

    Use a form of the word BE to make the present, past, and future continuous tenses:
    Present Continuous: AM, IS, ARE + -ing form
    I‘m studying English.
    He‘s talking on the phone.
    We‘re having dinner right now.

    Past Continuous: WAS, WERE + -ing form
    He was singing in the shower.
    We were driving home from work.

    Future Continuous: WILL BE + -ing form
    Tomorrow morning I‘ll be teaching an English class.
    Next month we‘ll be traveling to Europe.
    Ted will be speaking at the conference in July.


    When you ask a question in the present, past, or future continuous, the word order changes and the helping verb comes BEFORE the subject:
    – Is he talking on the phone? 
    – He‘s talking on the phone.
    – Were you driving home from work?
    – We were driving home from work.
    – Will Ted be speaking at the conference?
    – Ted will be speaking at the conference.

    They help other verbs show action.

    Helping Verb #3 – HAVE

    Use a form of the verb HAVE to make perfect tenses:
    Ok, so the rules are a little weird. Let’s go through them without any stress.
    Soon you’ll know which one to use because it will just sound right to you.
    Use has with a singular subject

    Present perfect: Use HAVE (with I, you, we, they) and HAS (with he, she, it)
    I‘ve finished my homework.
    She has just left the office.
    Bob and Karen have already spoken to me.

    In spoken English, we often shorten “he has” and “she has” to “he’s” and “she’s”:
    She’s (she has) just left the office.
    He’s (he has) borrowed my textbook.

    Past perfect: Use HAD in all cases
    He said he had bought the tickets.
    We had hoped to finish early, but we didn’t.

    In spoken English, we often shorten “had” to ‘d
    He said he‘d bought the tickets.
    We‘d hoped to finish early, but we didn’t.

    Future perfect: Use WILL HAVE in all cases
    By this time tomorrow, I will have finished this project.
    By the time I’m 30, I will have traveled to over a dozen countries.


    Again, when you ask a question with HAVE, the word order changes and the helping verb comes BEFORE the subject:
    Have you finished your homework?
    I‘ve finished my homework
    Has she left the office?
    She has just left the office.
    Have Bob and Karen spoken to you?
    Bob and Karen have spoken to me.

    To start with, both linking verbs and helping verbs are not action verbs. However, there’s a big difference between their functions in a sentence. Linking verbs express a state of being or a condition. They connect the subject to the rest of the sentence. On the other hand, helping verbs or auxiliary verbs help the main action verb in a sentence. Consider the following examples:

    Linking verbs used in sentences
    am a copywriter.
    The man became angry.
    She was shocked when she heard the news.

    Helping verbs used in a sentence
    They have eaten lunch.
    I believe the team will win.

    The Life Activity Worksheet Helping Verbs will be of great help to practice.

(10.1) Culture of Reading - Turnip Story -

Materials Required

– Teacher to play video on screen

(10.2) Culture of Reading - Relationships & Moral Time - Primary

Materials Required

– Teacher to play video on screen

Teacher Instructions

Before the story begins, teacher can have a conversation with the students about how many of them have siblings (elder/ younger). If they have younger siblings, what do they remember about they being born and if they have elder siblings, did you ever ask your elder sister/ brother, what they remember when you were born? The ones who do not have siblings, tell them that you are the only stars in the house, so have you ever asked your mummy / daddy about how you were born? Today, in my story, I have a little boy who is telling us about how he is eagerly waiting for his new sibling to come and would you like to know where this new sibling is hiding? Come, let us see.

Our Sample Lesson Plans:
Foundational Numeracy & Mathematical Skills

Pre-number Concepts - Shapes and Shape Halves - Pre-primary

Materials Required

– Pre preparation- practice of cutting paper with child friendly scissors.
– Marble paper, glue


Speech, Objects around us, Vocabulary, Listening comprehension, Numbers, Shapes & Patterns, Communication skills, Fine motor skills, Motor memory

Teacher Instructions

– A pre prep for this activity can be done.

– Make the children cut old newspapers into circles, semi circles, squares and rectangles.

– The teachers can draw the given shapes and their halves on different old newspaper and distribute to the children. This will help the children to get used to using the scissors and before the marble paper is given they will understand the format of cutting. In this manner understanding of shape halves can be done for the children.

Pre-number Concepts - Bigger Smaller - Primary

Materials Required

– Large & small paper plates
– Cookie or cake
– CW Life Activity Worksheet[bigger-smaller]
– The link is provided:


Speech, Vocabulary, Numbers, Entertainment, Spatial awareness, Listening Comprehension, Objects Around Us, Fine & Gross Motor Skills, Communication Skills, Problem-solving, Values 

Teacher Instructions

– Teacher to bring items that can be practically shown to understand bigger/smaller.
– Draw apples of two different sizes on the board. Ask, “Which is bigger?”
– Explain that the bigger apple is bigger because it takes up more space. Tell the class that they compared objects by deciding which was bigger and which was smaller?
– The teacher should bring to the class a large cookie or cake to divide among the students; they will be very surprised. Otherwise, a picture will do the trick. Tell them the story of “You cut, you choose,” and that is how many parents tell their children to divide things in half so no one gets a bigger slice. Why would you want a bigger slice of cookie or cake? Because then you get more!
– Show pictures to students of cookies, chocolates, ice creams, or fruit. Which cookie would they want to eat, if this looks good to them? Why? Highlight the language of “bigger” and “smaller” – if something looks yummy, you’ll want the bigger portion, if it doesn’t look good, you’ll probably ask for the smaller portion. Write “bigger” and “smaller” on the board.
– Tell the children that today’s activities will be about big and small.
– On large paper plates, ask students to draw big/large things (elephants, houses, cars, etc.)
– On the small paper plates, ask students to draw small things (erasers, rice, pins, etc.)

Then show the following video for better understanding.   

Instruct the students to complete the CW Life Activity Worksheet[bigger-smaller] on their own.

Numbers & Operations - Cardinal & Ordinal Numbers - Primary

Materials Required

– PDF Cardinal Numbers-Ordinal Numbers
– Blackboard, Chalk
– Students (Duh! A tiny laugh in between a long session)


Speech, Vocabulary, Numbers, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Communication Skills, Listening Comprehension, Gross Motor Skills, Problem Solving, Calculations, Teamwork

Teacher Instructions

Cardinal numbers are numbers that are used for counting. They are also known as natural numbers or cardinals. A set of cardinal numbers starts from 1 and it goes on up to infinity. We use cardinal numbers to answer the question “how many?” 

For example, how many students are there in each class? The answer could be any number like 20, 23, 30, etc. So, all these numbers come in the category of cardinal numbers. A Cardinal Number describes or represents how many of something is present.

 Example – 3 pencils, 5 pens, etc. It quantifies an object. 

Cardinal numbers are counting numbers; they help to count the number of items.

 Let’s have a look at cardinal numbers examples. Anil wants to know how many boys are there in the class. Can you help him? Anil started to count using Natural numbers

Anil counted 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. There are 10 boys in the class. 

Counting numbers are cardinal numbers! 

Now, Let’s consider another example, Rima kept eight mangoes in a basket. The number eight denotes how many mangoes are there in the basket, irrespective of their order.

Examples of cardinal numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and so on. The smallest Cardinal number is 1 as 0 is not used for counting, so it is not a cardinal number.

Ordinal numbers are the numbers that talk about the position of objects. For example, “The cookies are kept in the 3rd drawer from the top”, “The orange dress is the 7th one from the right”, “The soccer ball is kept in the 3rd carton from the left”.  All these sentences have one thing in common – they talk about the positions of the objects. This is the main element in the discussion of ordinal numbers. 

An ordinal number is a number that indicates the position or order of something in relation to other numbers, like, first, second, third, and so on. This order or sequence may be according to the size, importance, or any sequence. 

Let us understand the ordinal numbers with an example. Ten students participated in a race. Out of them, the top winners were given medals and were ranked as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. In this case, the positions: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd are known to be the ordinal numbers we are talking about.

The Difference Between Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers

cardinal number is a number that denotes the count of any object. Any natural number such as 1, 2, 3, etc., is referred to as a cardinal number, whereas, an ordinal number is a number that denotes the position or place of an object. For example,  1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, etc. Now, if we say, “There are 3 ants and 5 bears”. This is an example of cardinal numbers. However, if we say, “The position of the runners in the running event is first, second, third, and so on”, this represents ordinal numbers. 


Make all the students stand in a line. Then call one student out of the line tell the student to count the students in the line. As the student counts tell the student by doing this he or she has counted the number of students in the line. Now tell the student to hold the hand of the fifth student and bring that student out of the line. This shows the position of the student in the line. The student who has done the activity will sit and the student standing will continue the activity the same way as the other student.

Teacher must take care to call out all the ordinal numbers children are taught but surely can repeat next time.

Numbers & Operations - Subtraction - Primary

Materials Required

– PPT : Subtraction Order


Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication skills, Fine Motor Skills, Motor memory, Calculations, Teamwork, Numbers

Teacher Instructions

Students are aware of the term subtraction which means take away. The sign of subtraction is “-“minus. Just recall the properties of subtraction. Then proceed by saying that a smaller number is taken away from a bigger number.

When we subtract, the number of things in the group reduce or become less.

 The minuend, subtrahend and difference are parts of a subtraction problem.

In the subtraction problem, 7 – 3 = 4, the number 7 is the minuend, the number 3 is the subtrahend and the number 4 is the difference.

The PPT [Subtraction] must be shown and explained in detail.

Properties of Subtraction

When zero is subtracted from the number, the difference is the number itself.

When a number is subtracted from itself the difference is zero. For example, 8 – 8 = 0

When 1 is subtracted from a number, we get its predecessor. For example, 7 – 1 =6

To subtract numbers with more than one digit, write down the larger number first and the smaller number directly below it making sure to line up the columns!

Measurement - Help the Squirrel reach Home - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

– The worksheet is given.  (Help the squirrel reach home)
– Jumbo Crayons


Speech, Alphabet, Fine Motor Skills, Listening Comprehension, Vocabulary, Communication Skills

Teacher Instructions

– Start the conversation by saying ” Children, one of my friends has lost his way to his house, Can you please help him to reach his home?” Wait for them to reply, YESSSSSSSS!!

– Take prints of the worksheet attached as per the strength of the class.

– Hand one sheet to each child.” Children, this is my friend Gilluu, poor chap he has lost his way to his house, so now you will have to show him the way so that he can reach his home safely”

– Explain the worksheet to the children. Ask them to try to finish finding the way as soon as possible,

– As they colour the shapes, revise the different shapes, different colours. 

Applaud them for a great job of colouring, and identifying colours & shapes

Measurement - Time - Primary

Materials Required

– PPT Time
– HW Life Activity Worksheet[Time-1 ]
– Analog clock


Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication skills, Fine Motor Skills, Motor memory, Teamwork

Teacher Instructions

Reading clock-faces – don’t jump in with digital

We’re surrounded by digital clocks everywhere these days – on mobiles, computers, TVs, alarm clocks, but it’s actually easier to learn how to tell the time with an analogue clock rather than a digital one[teacher must show the clock]

Analogue clocks lend themselves to the better understanding of time because of the constantly moving hands. The visual impact of the clock face also makes comprehension easier 

Teacher must teach the basics of reading time.

Practice counting to 60. Kids need to be able to count to 60 (in the correct order) in order to tell time. Let then quickly write down the numbers 1 through 60 in the Math Notebooks. As they write each number, have them recite the number as well. 

Practice counting by fives. Understanding groups of five will also make learning to tell time much easier. Have them quickly write down increments of five in the Math Notebooks up to 60. As they write the numbers, have them recite them as well. 

Differentiate between the hands. Point to both hands on the clock. Ask your kid what the major difference between the hands is. If they are struggling, you can give them a hint like, “Is one longer than the other.

Teacher must draw a clock on the board and tell the students all the clocks have numbers 1-12 on their face and it is called a dial. Then draw and label the clock hands. Once they have identified that the hands are different lengths, then explain the difference. Tell them that the shorthand is the hour hand and the long hand is the minute hand. Explain them by writing down “hour” on the shorthand, and “minute” on the long hand.

The hour hand, the shorter of the two hands, completes 1 rotation in 12 hours in a normal 12-hour. The minute hand, the longer hand, completes 1 rotation through in 60 minutes. and then it is 1 hour

Notice that as the minute hand moves the hour hand also moves but at a slower rate. On a clock, time is divided into seconds, minutes, hours. A day has 24 hours. We use a.m to tell time running from midnight to noon and p.m. for time running from noon to midnight.

Explain the hour hand. Point the hour hand at each number, keeping the minute hand at 12 o’clock. Tell them that each time the hour hand points at a number and the minute hand points at 12 o’clock, it is ___ o’clock. Go through each number saying, “It is 1 o’clock now. Now it is 2 o’clock. It’s 3 o’clock…” Then have them repeat what you just did.

You can even associate activities with each number to help solidify the hours; for example, “It is 3 o’clock now, which means it is time to your rest time,” or, “It is 5 o’clock now, which means it is time for play time. O’clock: used to specify the hour when telling time.

For every hour, the hour hand moves from one number to another. Therefore for 12 hours, it completes 1 round, and for 24 hours, it takes 2 rounds.

For 1 hour, the minute hand takes one round, and for 24 hours, it takes 24 rounds.

Therefore, in a day the hour hand completes 2 round and the minutes completes 24 rounds.

Share the PPT Time and go slide by slide explaining the concept.

Quiz– Pick a day of the week and write down a list of 5 to 7 activities with their associated times. Call out an activity and its associated time. Ask them to guide you to place the hour hand on the correct number. If necessary, gently correct their mistakes.

Say, for example, “School has ended, which means it is 3 o’clock. Move the hands and show me 3 o’clock on your clock,” or, “It is 9o’clock, which means it is time for bed. Move the hands and show them 9 o’clock on your clock.”

Explain the double meaning of the numbers. Explaining that the number 1 also means 5 minutes and that the number 2 also means 10 minutes .For example, tell them that the secret identity of number 1 is 5. Then write down a small number 5 next to the number 1. Repeat this for each number.

Make sure to point out that you are counting by 5s. Go over each number’s secret identity by “Count by 5s”.

Explain the minute hand’s role. Tell your kid that the numbers’ secret identities come out when the long hand, i.e., the minute hand, points at it. Keeping the hour hand still, point the minute hand at each number and say the associated minutes. Then have them repeat the process back to you. 

Let the students complete the Math. Textbook Pg. No. 100 with your assistance.

HW Life Activity Worksheet[Time-1 ] has to be done by the students[Teacher can refer the picture given for the correct order] 


No need to stress a lot only a guide line for the numbers can be given.

Shapes & Spatial Understanding - Lacing and Walking in a zig-zag line - Pre-Primary

Materials Required

– Lacing Activity
– Beads/ Buttons
– Wool/ lace
– Chalk
– Clean floor


Objects around us, Listening comprehension, Fine Motor Skills, Speech Colours, Shapes & Patterns

Teacher Instructions

– Teacher has to arrange beads / buttons and lacing thread.
– Give each child at least 5 to 10 beads for beading.
– She has to be alert.
– As the kids are small, they may put the beads in mouth.
– So she has to be very very attentive while doing this activity.
– The teachers has to observe  the eye- hand coordination of the children along with understanding of space between the lace and the hoop. This shows micro spatial awareness and progress in children
– The teacher to draw a big size zig- zag line on a clean floor( wet the chalk and make the lines to keep them stay longer).
– Make the activity fun by playing some peppy music
– Show the children how to walk on the zig-zag line by keeping one foot in front of the other.
– If this is an online class, please make sure that each child does it individually at the comfort of their home and the teacher has to do this activity along with them on the screen.

Observation here is to understand macro spatial awareness and progress in children.

Shapes & Spatial Understanding - 3D Shapes - Primary

Materials Required

– Black board, chalk
– The link is provided
– Objects of solid shapes
– CW Life Activity Worksheet [Solid shapes]


Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication Skills, Fine Motor Skills, Team Work

Teacher Instructions

·         Teacher must recapitulate the plane shapes and its properties and then talk about solid shapes. What do you know about solid shapes?

·         Teacher must explain each shape with its drawing on the board, the shape related object and its attributes to the students.

·         Objects that occupy space are called solid shapes. Their surfaces are called faces. In simpler words, we can say that faces meet at edges and the edges meet at vertices. What are the names of 3D shapes?

·         Some examples of types of solid shapes are: Cone, Cuboid, Sphere, Cube and Cylinder.  Specifically, you can observe the numbers of faces, edges, and vertices, as well as the shape of the base. 

·         The flat surfaces of a solid figure are its faces or sides as they are commonly called.  The base is the face on which the figure rests.  The edge of a solid figure is the line segment where two faces meet.  A vertex (plural: vertices) is the corner that is formed where the ends of the line segments of two or more faces meet.

·         What are the features of 3D shapes?

·         A sphere is a solid figure that has no faces, edges, or vertices. This is because it is completely round; it has no flat sides or corners. These shapes roll.

·         A cone has one face, but no edges or vertices. Its face is in the shape of a circle. Because a circle is a flat, plane shape, it is a face. But because it is round around the outside, it does not form any edges or vertices.  These shapes slide and roll.

·         A cylinder has two circular faces but also no edges or vertices. It has 3 faces. Two flat faces those are circles and 1 curved face

·         It has 2  edges

·         It has 0 vertex

·         These shapes roll and slide.

·         CUBE

·         It has 6 faces

·         Each face has 4 edges (all are squares)

·         It has 12 Edges

·         It has 8 Vertices (corner points)

·         These shapes only stack and slide.

·         CUBOID

·         It has 6 faces

·         Each face has 4 edges (2 opposite sides are square

·         2 opposite side are rectangles)

·         It has 12 Edges

·         It has 8 Vertices (corner points)

·         These shapes only stack  and slide.

·         Few objects like coin, markers, wheels, bowl, pencil etc. can slide as well as roll.

·         Where can I find real life examples of 3D shapes?

·         Let the students come closer and observe the objects, make them identify the edge, vertex and face of each solid object.

·         Play the video the link provided

·         Pause the video at the places where the explanation of every shape is shown like cube: pause and show the cube shaped object you have bought along.

·         Encourage them to complete the CW Life Activity Worksheet [Solid shapes]

Patterns - Activity - Primary

Materials Required

– Black board, chalk
– Pens, chairs, tables, floor, windows
– Music, Blocks, colours


Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication Skills, Fine & Gross Motor Skills, Team Work, Motor Memory, Music, Shapes and Patterns

Teacher Instructions

Teacher must do the recapitulation of the concept learnt in the earlier grades.

Begin the explanation with a small activity that will serve as a warm-up for the chapter.

Make all the students in the class to stand at their places then one student to sit and the other to stand and let them continue the same way for the whole class OR One student should face the class and the next student should face the board. OR. Students could also be made to stand in a boy-girl-boy-girl order or any other simple pattern. OR. Ask students to recognize the patterns and discuss what might come next. Now give them liberty to come up with the new ideas of forming pattern and encourage the participants. Teacher should make them understand the repetitive nature of patterns. Teacher can choose materials like pens, chairs, tables, floor, and windows etc., which have patterns to introduce to children.

Students can also be taken outdoors to observe a pattern in leaves, arrangement of leaves, flowers etc.

For Example:

Step-1: Choose any chair, table etc., which involves patterns.

Step-2: Ask children to draw the pattern they see in the chair/table. 

Step-3: Discussion

Why do you like this interesting design? [Introduce the word ‘pattern’.]

How do you create this pattern?

What are patterns?

Patterns are things that repeat in a logical way, like vertical stripes on a sweater. They can be numbers, images or shapes. Patterns can be found everywhere in our daily lives. “The sun came up and went down and then the moon came up and went down.”

They can observe repeating patterns like a block standing, block lying flat, block standing, block lying flat, etc. They become able to copy simple repeating patterns, such as green, white, green, and white and so on. Eventually, they will be able to make their own simple patterns.

Clear patterns can be found in our daily routines, music,dance words, and even in nature. Natural patterns include symmetries, trees, spirals, meanders, waves, foams, tessellations, cracks and stripes.

Stage 1: Recognize a pattern- It underpins memorization of the counting sequence and understanding number operations, for instance recognizing that if you add numbers in a different order their total stays the same. Recognize patterns in the environment – e.g. fence posts: short, tall, short, tall…

Stage 2: Describe a pattern- use patterns to describe the world around them and

to solve problems

Stage 3: Copy a pattern- copy patterns that others have made, compare and talk about patterns that arise from their daily experiences

Stage 4: Extend a pattern- extend patterns that others have started, tell what is missing if part of a pattern is hidden

Stage 5: Create a pattern- create their own patterns at various difficulty levels such as:

red, blue, red, blue…

red, blue, yellow, repeat…

red, red, blue, red, red, blue….

red, blue, yellow, yellow, yellow

Simple repeating and growing/increasing/decreasing patterns consist of a series

of related elements—each new element is related to the previous in some manner.

Students must be able to identify the relationship in order to understand the


Do you remember what a pattern is? 

That’s right!

A pattern is an arrangement or sequence that follows a certain order.

In the last lesson, you learned about repeating patterns _ – patterns that repeat themselves.

Divide students into groups and distribute the shapes to each group. Ask students to make different patterns using the plane shapes. This will make students to think creatively.

Today we are going to learn that patterns can also be made with the help of bricks. Where and how are the patterns made of bricks being used?

Engineers use them for construction and are well aware of their durability. Bricks are used to make walls, ceilings, floors and windows. Even beautiful designs can be made in them with bricks. Patterns made of bricks are used in many places .Actually when bricks are used in the construction work some pattern or the other is definitely used. Patterns are used in the ordinary walls too. A special pattern has to be maintaining for the wall to be strong, that shows pattern also plays an important part in the use of bricks. To make the wall thicker different patterns are used and for thinner walls different patterns are used. We can also make vents [the gaps left in the wall for air circulation] using bricks. Many patterns can be made using bricks and such patterns can be used for construction of different buildings to make wall, vent, window, arch and gardens too. These patterns can be used to make floor beautiful. Brick patterns provide strength to the walls.

Now, divide students into groups of six and form lines across the gym. Begin by having the class clap a 4/4 pattern with the teacher. Then stomp a 4/4 pattern. Have them do both. Then add music and have them repeat the pattern a few times.

Introduce the right foot: heel, toe, heel, toe. Then left foot: heel, toe, heel, toe. Add the grapevine: step right foot out, bring left foot behind, step right foot out, bring left foot together with right foot. Repeat to the left: left foot out, right foot behind, step left foot out, bring right foot together with left foot. So this several times.

Add music. Now add all the steps: heel, toe, grapevine.

Now teach the 1-2-3-4 step. Right foot back, bring left foot to right foot (put together) step right foot back, bring left foot to right foot. Repeat the pattern several times. Add all the patterns up to this point.

Do this without music, then with music. If the students are doing well and can handle more, add the l-2-3-4 slap step. This is done by slapping the floor with the right foot, turn 1/4 turn to the right (scoop with the right foot), stomp with the left foot, clap hands. This is tricky, so practice until they have it. Add to other steps with music.

This can be done as a whole class where they all find a space on the floor, or in the lines. The goal is to have all the lines moving together.

Data Handling - Let's Record - Primary

Materials Required

– PPT Let’s Record
– Life Activity Worksheet [Let’s Record]


Speech, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Listening Comprehension, Communication skills, Fine Motor Skills, Motor memory

Teacher Instructions

1. Teacher must ask the students if your room is messy and you need anything it will be difficult to find and if the things are organized properly it is very easy to find it. So arranging a data in order makes work easy.

2. Teacher can demonstrate by taking out the stationery items [pencils, pens, eraser, sharpener, and crayons all in different numbers] and scatter them on the table. Tell the class also to take out all the things from their bags arrange them on the table in order as all pencils together, eraser together then count and say how many each.

3. After the things are put systematically, ask how many of each. Students have learnt to organize a data

4. Tell the students if anything is organized in a proper way it is easy to count.

5. Let them see the PPT Let’s Record and get the clear idea of the concept. Teacher should explain the slides to the students.

6. Let the students observe the pictures on Math. Textbook Pg. No. 123,124,125 and understand the questions and answer them appropriately.

7. The HW Math. Textbook Pg. No. 126, HW Life Activity Worksheet [Let’s Record] must be provided to all for more practice.

Our Sample Lesson Plans:
LIFE Skills (Beyond Nipun Bharat)

Understanding Emotions - Pre-Primary

Story & Worksheet Time


Speech, Communication Skills. Value System. Vocabulary. Behaviour & Etiquette, Listening Comprehension. Team work. Family and Friends

Teacher Instructions

Start the activity by telling children today they are going to listen to a story . After the story , children have to guess what value are they going to talk about in this week.

Narrate the story given in your own words, using expressions and voice modulations where necessary

Let’s go for a picnic

Raghu and Aman were excited as they were going on a picnic with their friends.  They said, “We will have a lot of fun. ” The bus arrived and everyone started boarding the bus. Raghu wanted to sit near the window . So he rushed to the bus , pushed Aman to get into the bus quickly. Aman fell on the ground. Aman shouted, “Why did you push me like that? I got hurt. ” Instead of saying sorry, Raghu shouted back, “You should have seen that I was coming. It was your fault. ” Both started fighting. The teacher saw them fighting and held them back and said, “Do both of you realise how your anger is running your friendship?” He made them say sorry to each other for yelling at each other  and asked Raghu to apologise for pushing Aman. They both apologised and shook hands. They decided to never fight again and learn to control their anger.

After narrating the story, ask the children what did they learn from the story? If they rightly guess that the story is about controlling anger , applaud them.

Make it an interactive session for children by asking them to share with the class about what makes them angry? What do they do when they are angry? How do they feel when they are angry?

Tell children, it’s not bad to feel angry. Anger is a normal, healthy emotion but we need to control our anger as it can ruin a lot of things and they will be learning about how to control anger

Activity- Worksheet time

CW Life Activity Worksheet[Emotions] has to be done to know how perfect they could identify.

Communication Skills - Story & Activity Time - Pre-Primary

How important is to communicate well and understanding the moral – Always be truthful


Speech, Communication Skills. Value System. Vocabulary. Behaviour & Etiquette, Listening Comprehension. Team work. Family and Friends

Teacher Instructions

The Boy Who Cried Wolf

There once was a shepherd boy who was bored as he sat on the hillside watching the village sheep. To amuse himself he took a great breath and sang out, “Wolf! Wolf! The Wolf is chasing the sheep!” The villagers came running up the hill to help the boy drive the wolf away. But when they arrived at the top of the hill, they found no wolf. The boy laughed at the sight of their angry faces. “Don’t cry ‘wolf’, shepherd boy,” said the villagers, “when there’s no wolf!” They went grumbling back down the hill. Later, the boy sang out again, “Wolf! Wolf! The wolf is chasing the sheep!” To his naughty delight, he watched the villagers run up the hill to help him drive the wolf away. When the villagers saw no wolf they sternly said, “Save your frightened song for when there is really something wrong! Don’t cry ‘wolf’ when there is NO wolf!” But the boy just grinned and watched them go grumbling down the hill once more. Later, he saw a REAL wolf prowling about his flock. Alarmed, he leaped to his feet and sang out as loudly as he could, “Wolf! Wolf!” But the villagers thought he was trying to fool them again, and so they didn’t come. At sunset, everyone wondered why the shepherd boy hadn’t returned to the village with their sheep. They went up the hill to find the boy. They found him weeping. “There really was a wolf here! The flock has scattered! I cried out, “Wolf!” Why didn’t you come?” An old man tried to comfort the boy as they walked back to the village. “We’ll help you look for the lost sheep in the morning,” he said, putting his arm around the youth, “Nobody believes a liar…even when he is telling the truth!”

Activity Time

Arranging the story in sequence

Loyalty - Activity Time - Primary

Material Required

– Activity given
– Activity sheet given- Teacher to take prints as per the strength of the class and give one print to each child
– Pencils
– AR Book Volume 2- Rooster


Speech, Listening Comprehension, Communication Skills, Value System, Behaviour & Etiquette, Animals, Awareness, Sense of Responsibility

Teacher Instructions

1.      Start the conversation with children by asking them what do they understand by the word  ‘ loyalty’ ?

2.      Let children share their thoughts on the same . Write down the key points on the board , to go over with the children at the end of the activity. Appreciate them for sharing their thoughts

3.      Share the following points with children on loyalty:

– Being loyal means that we have to put other peoples best interests before our own; in other words we might have to sacrifice something to protect the bonds that we share with others and value so much.

– Being loyal to a friend means  never talking bad about  them and always  standing up for  them against other peoples unpleasant comments.

– Being loyal also means that we are always ‘true to our word’ and if we promise to do something or be somewhere then we try our hardest to fulfil that promise and always be on time.

– Being loyal means keeping secrets. When someone shares a secret with you, they trust you. You should not share the secret with anyone else.

– Being loyal means sticking to your friend in all situations. Never leaving them alone.

4.      Ask children which animals comes to their immediately when they think about Loyalty. Applaud them when they list animals which show loyalty. Animals could be dog, rooster, pig, cow, horse etc. 

– These are very faithful animals

– They instantly forgive you no matter how you treat them

– They understand when you are sad and try to comfort you.

– These animals are very loyal and dependable.

5.      On the activity page, children have to answer a few questions based on all the discussions.

6.      Let children answer these questions on their own. Encourage them to share their views.

7.      End the activity by having children share their views.  Read the story on the Rooster and explain to the children about how , inspite of the villagers trying to get rid of the rooster , he forgives them , when they get him back

Activity Time

Sharing - Activity Time - Primary

Introduction to the theme and Role Play


Speech, Communication Skills, Value System, Vocabulary, Behaviour & Etiquette, Listening Comprehension, Team work, Entertainment, Theatre

Teacher Instructions

Welcome children to the class. Start the conversation with children in the following way;

“When you were still little you probably did not like to share your toys. You might not have even understood what sharing meant. You knew that your toys were yours and you didn’t want anyone else to play with them. Why should you? They were yours, after all. However, as you get old you learn more about kindness and being good to the people around you. This is what sharing is all about. Sharing is when you have something that someone else needs or wants and you offer to let them use your items.

If your friend needs a pencil and you have an extra one you should offer to give them your spare. This will help them and they will remember the favour you did for them. Chances are, they will make sure to help you when you need help.

Some of us do not like to share You might know of some children that will have lot of toys, but if someone wants to play with  them they will never offer to help. These type of people are called selfish. A selfish person only thinks of themselves and never looks out for the people around them. You should not let this type of person bother you. If you want to be a

Sharing is something that you do to make yourself feel good as well as the person needing your help. It shows the people around you that you are a good person and that you understand the needs of others.”

Role Play

Role-playing is an interactive way of teaching many social skills. Role-playing consists of acting out social interactions that children would typically encounter. Encourage children to practice a skill it by acting it out. Gather the children in a circle. Tell them they will have a chance to act out situations . Ask for volunteers to come into the middle of the circle to act out the first scenario. When the volunteers are ready, share one of the following scenarios for them to act out. Continue with other volunteers and scenarios. Have a brief discussion after each role play.


  • Your friend dropped all of their candy out of their bag. You still have your whole bag of candy in your hand.
  • A is playing with two cars. B asks, “Can I play with a car, please?” A says, “No, I want to play with them both.”  B says, “OK. Can I play with them later when you are finished?” A says, “OK.” B goes to find something else to do in the meantime.
  • Rita has many toys and books. In her class there is a child who loves to read but does not have money to buy books.  What should  Rita do?

End the activity by asking the group to raise their hands and say; “I promise to be kind and share my things with others.”

Some children may be shy about volunteering to act out roles. That is okay. Try to engage everyone in discussion.

Decision Making - Activity Time - Primary

Learning about Decision Making


Speech, Communication Skills, Value System, Vocabulary, Behaviour & Etiquette, Listening Comprehension, Objects around us, Awareness

Teacher Instructions

1. Greet the children and welcome them to the class!! Once the children settle down, ask children the following question. “Have you ever made a choice that resulted in a something that you did not want?

2. Encourage students to share their experiences.

3. Continue your conversation with them by asking them few more questions on making decisions.
– How do we decide whether we should do something or not?
– How do you make a choice or a decision?

4. Make a note of all the points shared by children.

5. This week we are going to learn about ; Why is decision making important? How can we take good decision?

6. Decision making is important. If we want to see good results, we have to work on our decision making skills. Decision making skills helps you become a matured and responsible adult as you grow.

Take prints of the sheet given. The sheet talks about the different steps which will help in making decisions.

Explain the steps to the children in your own words